Kidney stones (also called renal calculi, nephrolithiasis or urolithiasis) are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract — from your kidneys to your bladder.
A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters.
If it becomes lodged in the ureters, it may block the flow of urine and cause the kidney to swell and the ureter to spasm, which can be very painful.
Severe, sharp pain in the side and back, below the ribs
Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
Pain or burning sensation while urinating
Pink, red or brown urine
Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
A persistent need to urinate, urinating more often than usual or urinating in small amounts
Nausea and vomiting
Fever and chills if an infection is present
Kidney stones often have no definite, single cause, although several factors may increase your risk. Kidney stones form when your urine contains more crystal-forming substances — such as calcium, oxalate and uric acid
Types of kidney stones
Calcium stones. Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a substance made daily by your liver or absorbed from your diet. high doses of vitamin D, intestinal bypass surgery and several metabolic disorders can increase the concentration of calcium or oxalate in urine. certain medications used to treat migraines or seizures, such as topiramate (Topamax, Trokendi XR, Qudexy XR).
Uric acid stones. who lose too much fluid because of chronic diarrhea or malabsorption, who eat a high-protein diet, and those with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Certain genetic factors also may increase your risk of uric acid stones.
Cystine stones. These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of a specific amino acid.
Struvite stones. Struvite stones form in response to a urinary tract infection. These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.
- Family or personal history.
- Certain diets. high in protein, sodium (salt) and sugar may increase your risk of some types of kidney stones.
- Digestive diseases and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea
- Other medical conditions. such as renal tubular acidosis, cystinuria, hyperparathyroidism and repeated urinary tract infections
- Certain supplements and medications. such as vitamin C, dietary supplements, laxatives (when used excessively), calcium-based antacids, and certain medications used to treat migraines or depression
Hair loss (alopecia) can affect just your scalp or your entire body, and it can be temporary or permanent. It can be the result of heredity, hormonal changes, medical conditions or a normal part of aging. Anyone can lose hair on their head, but it’s more common in men.
People typically lose 50 to 100 hairs a day. This usually isn’t noticeable because new hair is growing in at the same time. Hair loss occurs when new hair doesn’t replace the hair that has fallen out.
Hair loss can appear in many different ways, depending on what’s causing it. It can come on suddenly or gradually and affect just your scalp or your whole body.
Gradual thinning on top of head.
- Circular or patchy bald spots. Some people lose hair in circular or patchy bald spots on the scalp, beard or eyebrows. Your skin may become itchy or painful before the hair falls out.
- Patches of scaling that spread over the scalp.
Family history (heredity). The most common cause of hair loss is a hereditary condition that happens with aging. This condition is called androgenic alopecia. a receding hairline and bald spots in men and thinning hair along the crown of the scalp in women.
Hormonal changes. pregnancy, childbirth, menopause and thyroid problems.
medical conditions. Medical conditions include alopecia areata, which is immune system related and causes patchy hair loss, scalp infections such as ringworm, and a hair-pulling disorder called trichotillomania
- Medications and supplements. Hair loss can be a side effect of certain drugs, such as those used for cancer, arthritis, depression, heart problems, gout and high blood pressure.
- Radiation therapy to the head.
- stress. Many people experience a general thinning of hair several months after a physical or emotional shock. This type of hair loss is temporary.
- Hairstyles. Excessive hairstyling or hairstyles that pull your hair tight, such as pigtails or cornrows, can cause a type of hair loss called traction alopecia.
A family history
Such Skin diseases on scalp- Ringworm, Psoriasis, Eczema